Laws of technical system evolution

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Laws of technical system evolution

According to TRIZ there are several main laws of technical system development or evolution:

  1. Increase the degree of ideality;
  2. Irregular evolution of system parts & coordination;
  3. Increase the degree of system dynamics;
  4. Increase of manageability of the system;
  5. Transition of a system to a super system.

1. Increase the degree of ideality

An Absolutely Ideal System (which is impossible) is defined as a system which does not exist but all possible functions are delivered at the required moment of time in the required space with 100% of effectiveness, whereas there is no consumption of power, material, energy and information.

Therefore, Absolutely Ideal System must deliver an infinite number of functions, at the required moment of time and in the required space without producing negative effects and the required expenses do not exist. The use of information is not regarded as expenses in the case where information is available for free. A more ideal system always uses more free of charge information.

Directions and paths of increasing the degree of ideality

Two directions of increasing the degree of ideality:

Shrinking of a zone of a given technical system: ideal technical system – working unit – function, which is delivered by the working unit. In this case, the system approaches zero.

Expansion of a zone of consideration of a technical system: we consider a function of the system, a function of a super system and, finally, a demand. In this direction it is possible to consider alternative methods of meeting the recognized demand. In this way new solution principles can be suggested.

Methods of Idealization: reduction of some parts of a system or a process; increase of a number of delivered functions; increase of specific parameters; using advanced equipment, materials, processes; elimination of undesired effects; using of disposable objects; using block-structured designs; using expensive materials in necessary zones only; using resources.

2. Irregular evolution of system parts & coordination

As parts of the system are developed irregularly, there is a need to align parts of the system to reach consistency. Parts or subsystems are integrated basing on functions that they provide and they are to be compatible with each other.

Subsystems alignment stages:

  • Compulsory coordination – efficiency of better performing and more developed part is reduced to the lower and least efficient part.
  • Buffer coordination – subsystems coordination by implementation of special links, subsystems, elements that serve to ensure common rhythm of parts.
  • Self-coordination – coordination by the subsystems themselves.

Coordination of parts can be static and dynamic.

Types of coordination: in time, in space, of structure (material, energetic, informational), by conditions, of parameters, to demands.

Levels of coordination: elements, subsystems, systems, super systems, external environment.

3. Increase the degree of system dynamics

The law of increasing the degree of dynamics includes several sub-laws.

The law of transition of a system structure from macro- to micro- level by: changes of a scale, changes of linking, transition to more complex and energy-saturated forms.

A scale of a technical system is changed by transition from super system to a system, from the system to its subsystem and substance / content. Ultimate goal is transition from the super system to substance, replacement by content.

Change of a degree of the system linking is provided by increasing the degree of fragmentation of a substance.

Increase of specific energy saturation of the working unit makes it possible to raise not only effectiveness and quality of manufacturing / performing processes but also to create new manufacturing / performing processes.

Dynamics of evolution of the working unit indicates that in the beginning technical system is limited to a single field. During next phase another field is added to the existing one and we observe transition from mono- to bi- and then to poly-system.

4. Increase of manageability of the system

System manageability or the degree of control increase over a system. Rising the degree of dynamics of control results from increasing the degree of substance-filed interactions in a system and increasing information saturation in a system.

Necessary condition if the system control increase is the energy and information conductivity of all parts of the system. As every technical system is a transformer of energy / information, this energy / information should circulate freely and efficiently through its main parts.

That means decreasing the degree of human involvement to the work provided by a technical system. From mechanics to automation, then to self-evolution and self-reproduction. For example, material object is replaced with software.

The raise of the degree of control over a system is the result of the transformation from non-controllable system to the control over deviances, then to the system with feedback, then to adaptive system, then to self-educational and self-organizational system, and finally to self-evolving and self-reproducing system.

5. Transition of a system to a super system

After exhausting the possibilities of development, system integrates self to a super system as its part.

Understanding and using these laws allows fulfilling technical system development forecasts.

Prepared using articles from https://triz-journal.com and http://www.altshuller.ru/world/eng/index.asp

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